Monday, June 15, 2020
Separating qualities common to one set or type of Shakespeares plays which are not common to the plays as a whole is a difficult task: it would no doubt be possible to find evidence of any feature uniting the Tragedies within any of Shakespeares plays, if one looked hard enough. This is not surprising if one considers that the one thing above all others that unites Shakespeares plays is that they portray human life, and the nature of human life does not change. Thus the basis for each and every play is the same: only the circumstances change. Furthermore, all cases of tragedy are, paradoxically, unique and also very similar to everyday events (albeit extreme examples of them), and both parts of this paradox are necessary for the tragedy to work. If the tragic events were not set apart and special in some way, they would be dismissed as everyday occurrences, and if they were not close to common experience the audience would not empathise with the characters. Either way the element of tragedy would be lost. I firmly believe that what Shakespeare was interested in exploring in his plays was the way in which people react to different situations, both psychologically and through actions. This is borne out by the fact that Shakespeare only invented one of his plots himself ? The Tempest ? while for all his other plays he adapted tales of folklore, other writers work and, in the case of the Histories, historical events themselves. This is in no way a shortcoming in Shakespeares talent or something which detracts from his plays, for Shakespeare was not interested in simply telling stories: he wanted to put the very nature of human life on the stage. As Joseph Conrad said, Imagination, not invention, is the supreme master of art, as of life.Thus rather than having a distinct set of uniting features, certain features are more prominent in the tragedies than in other plays. The tragedies are, more than any other of Shakespeares plays, detailed studies of the psychology of one character, the tragic hero. That the plays are generally named after the main protagonist supports this theory: in Antony and Cleopatra and Romeo and Juliet, the presence of two tragic heroes indicates a wider study ? these two plays are more concerned with the workings of society and the characters interactions with that society than other plays. This wider concern is also shown by the lack of soliloquies in the two plays. The Comedies are given more general titles, for example Twelfth Night or Measure for Measure: they explore even more general problems in society, and are less concerned with the individual characters reactions than the situation as a whole. That is not to say that the tragedies are unconcerned with society ? many of the tragic heroes are rulers or become rulers during the play, and we see that their situation affects the working of the entire kingdom, for example the storms in Macbeth and King Lear which symbolise the disruption of the natural order when a k ing is deposed unlawfully.This focus on the tragic hero means that the success of a tragic play hinges around the audiences reaction that character. The very basis of tragedy lies in the audiences reaction to a situation where the fundamentally virtuous or just protagonist experiences misfortunes disproportionate to his culpability: misfortunes which he has in part brought upon himself ? not through depravity or vice but by an error of judgement. We must see in the lead character a reflection, however small, of ourselves, and a representation of human limitations ? we feel pity for a man who does not deserve his misfortunes, and we fear for someone like ourselves . If the audience does not like the protagonist then it will not sympathise with his fate and the tragic nature is lost because the complex mix of excitement and terror ultimately leading to catharsis will be replaced by indifference or even pleasure at the heros downfall and death. This is why some people have a problem wi th Othello ? the ease with which Iago dupes Othello into being jealous suggests that he is actually rather stupid and can lead the audience to a contemptuous reaction rather than a sympathetic one. Similarly it is important that the protagonist has a measure of culpability in his own misfortune ? if he does not then the situation is not tragic but merely unfortunate, and the hero simply unlucky to be caught up in circumstances beyond his control.Each of Shakespeares tragic heroes is blinded in some way by a character flaw which affects their judgement and causes them to react differently in the heat of the moment from the way in which they might otherwise. The flaw is generally one of temperament which allows the heros passions to get the better of him and overrule reason. Shakespeare studies characters reactions to extremes of emotion outside the normal sphere of experience and as a result of extraordinary events and thus the audience can forgive the characters judgement being a li ttle wayward ? the tragedy comes in the crushing and disproportionate consequences which follow the error, and which turn the audiences reaction from pity to the deepest sympathy.Macbeth is blinded by vaulting ambition, which oerleaps itself (I.vii.27), an ambition that he cannot prevent himself from pursuing, even though he knows the dreadful consequences which will befall him, and the mental anguish which it will cause: Macbeth is perhaps the most purely psychological of the tragedies, showing as it does the inner turmoil of Macbeth and his wife, and their gradual descent into madness. Macbeths famous soliloquy at the beginning of I.vii brilliantly shows the torment that he is going through ? he knows that if he acts upon his ambition it will destroy him, yet he cannot resist doing it anyway, and laments his imminent downfall, wishing If it were done when tis done, then twere well it were done quicklythat but this blow might be the be-all and end-all! (lines 1-5) But he knows that Bloody instructionsbeing taught, return / To plague the inventor (9-10) ? he cannot jump the life to come, but must have judgement here. The audience has great sympathy for him, as he is a great man, highly intelligent and fiercely loyal up to this point, and although he says he has no spur / To prick the sides of [his] intent, one could argue that he was greatly insulted in I.iv when Duncan, having said to Macbeth that More is [his] due than more than all can pay, names Malcolm as Prince of Cumberland and not Macbeth less than twenty lines later! This is less than politically shrewd as Malcolm is nowhere near as impressive as Macbeth, and downright rude given Duncans previous debt of thanks to Macbeth. This slight, combined with the witches cryptic promises and Duncans ill-timed visit to Macbeths castle, conspires to produce an opportunity well out-of-the-ordinary and a huge temptation for Macbeth. This is where the difference lies between Macbeth and the character of Edmund in K ing Lear, who has a similar all-consuming ambition ? Edmunds rise is all of his own making, he knows exactly what he is doing, it is cool and calculated whereas Macbeths is a crime of passion and opportunism, and Edmund does not care one bit what is right or wrong ? his very aim is to subvert the accepted way of life. Like an Elizabethan version of Conrads Mr Kurtz, Macbeth [lacks] restraint in the gratification of his various lusts: if it is in his power to do something, he cannot but do it. It is Macbeths and Kurtzs brilliance which is their downfall ? as Marlow says in Heart of Darkness, no fool ever made a bargain for his soul with the devil.Othello is blinded by jealousy so strong / That judgement cannot cure (II:i:300-1), an overpowering insecurity which causes him to be suspicious at the slightest encouragement from Iago, who allows Othellos imagination to do most of the work. The ease with which Iago persuades Othello that his wife and his most trusted officer are deceiving him is alarming, indeed there is almost eagerness in the speed with which he changes from devoted love to absolute hate: in barely more than three hundred lines Othello turns from professing that when I love [Desdemona] not, / Chaos is come again (III:iii:92-3) to Ill tear her all to pieces! (III.iii.428). Although he tries to maintain that he is confident of his position and his wifes loyalty, saying exchange me for a goat, / When I shall turn the business of my soul / To such exsufflicate and blown surmises (III.iii.178-180), the very fact that he does not immediately send Iago away in disgrace shows he is not as sure as he says. Very soon after he has given himself up so fully to trifles light as air (III.iii.319) that only a herd would do. This startling reversal suggests to me a predisposition to suspicion; that Othello expects to be treated differently from and less equally than other men because [he is] black / And [has] not those soft parts of conversation / That chamberers have (III.iii.260-2), and because he is declined / Into the vale of years (III.iii.292-3). This is not something to condemn him for in itself, as for a Moor to be in his position of success was unheard of, and no doubt he had other unseen enemies besides Iago (Desdemonas father, for example, of whom it is said [Desdemonas] match was mortal to him (V.ii.204) ). The fault comes in his judgement of character ? with tragic irony Othello turns on those who most respect and love him for the man that he is, while he trusts the racist who hates him for superficial reasons: as he says himself, he loved not wisely, but too well (V.ii.340). Iago really has to do very little: as with Macbeth and the Wyrd Sisters the roots are there from the start, and need only a little nurturing to flourish. I do not suggest that Othellos motivation is in any way similar to Macbeths: the latter rejects conventional morality in return for absolute power, while Othello is merely misled by the amoral Iago but ret ains his innate virtuosity. However I believe that the element of tragedy is increased if some of the blame for Othellos duping is attributed to the protagonist himself, not for stupidity but for presupposing the guilt of Desdemona and Cassio, and for his weakness in not holding to his demand for proof. The errors of judgement that Othello makes while under the influence of his jealousy are grave, but the main part of the fault lies with Iago and we forgive Othello his misdirected passion ? he at least maintains the same moral code throughout, and as he says at the end, naught did I in hate, but all in honour (V.ii.292).Othellos problems stem from a common mistake among the tragic heroes: he mixes his personal affairs with his public ones and his role as a leader when he allows Desdemona to accompany him to Cyprus. As shown in Richard II by Richards failing as a king, the personal life and the role of a leader should be kept separate, and the personality and intelligence of a leader are not necessarily indicators of how he will perform at his job ? Henry V was a great King, but had many failings as a man. Lear mixes the two worlds when he holds a public trial for what should be intensely private declarations of love, and Macbeth lets his own personal ambitions completely obscure any thought of actually governing for the good of the wider kingdom. The most striking examples of private and public concerns overlapping come in Antony and Cleopatra and Romeo and Juliet. In the former love is very much something for the public arena, with grand gestures the only way to demonstrate genuine feelings: Octavius Caesar is shocked when his sister arrives without a grand entrance, saying You come not / Like Caesars sister. The wife of Antony / Should have an army for an usher, and the neighs of horse to tell of her approach / Long ere she did appear. Moreover, the crux of the play lies in Antonys balancing of his private pleasures and his public duties. It seems that he ha s returned to the Antony of Julius Caesar when he brings about peace with Pompey and marries Octavia to pacify her brother Octavius, but gradually he gives in to his lust again, culminating in his retreat during the sea battle, when he abandons thoughts of fighting and blindly follows the Cleopatras retreating vessel, which turns possible victory to certain defeat. This is Antonys blindness: he cannot maintain the balance between his public and private affairs, and lets each one affect the other. In Romeo and Juliet, the couple fight an ongoing battle to keep their very private feelings of love from the constraints that the social and religious institutions seek to impose on them. They meet at night and marry in secret, the opposite of Antony and Cleopatras public show. Eventually the only way the couple can defeat the public forces which threaten to destroy their love is to commit suicide: it is a final assertion of their private rights, their ultimate night.Romeo and Juliet does n ot follow the general trend of most of the tragedies in that it has two main protagonists, neither of whom conforms to the exact definition of the tragic hero as someone who brings about their own downfall by a failing of character. Indeed we are told in the prologue exactly what will happen to the star-crossd lovers ? they must die to end their families feud. It would be easy, after this beginning, to write off the events of the play as the mere sport of wanton fate, as Gloucester says in King Lear, but I think that this opening scene is loaded with irony and Shakespeare is in fact subtly sending up the widespread fatalistic views of his time. The play has more in common with its tragic peers than it would first appear ? the couple are blinded, just as the tragic heroes of other plays are, because when they fall into a love as boundless as the sea (II.ii.133), a love so strong that it overcomes fear and reason, their subsequent judgements are affected and they make choices which th ey otherwise would not have made. Their love is something which, once kindled, is beyond their direct control to a large extent ? one cannot control its ebb and flow ? but which undeniably originates from within them. Because of this duality, when their love brings them into conflict with their families, the social institutions and their religion we not only feel pity, but we recognise that they have a choice, however difficult, and could save their earthly bodies if they were willing to compromise their purity. This element of choice evokes a great deal of pathos and transforms our pity into deep sympathy.Tragically, the other choice that the couple has is to end itself by death (Gloucester in King Lear IV.vi.63) ? it is the only way that they can be together without compromising themselves and the purity of their love. Suicide is mans final personal choice, the only way of absolutely and irreversibly taking control of life: in ending it. This is why Gloucester laments that even th is last right has been denied him ? when suicide has failed he truly has nothing to live for, for human life is meaningless without the ability to choose: it becomes an absurdity. Hamlet agonises over whether to kill himself in order to escape the iniquity of the world, but shies away from committing the act, initially because the Everlasting had fixd / His canon gainst self slaughter (I.ii.131-2), but later the religious imagery fades away and is replaced by a fear of the undiscovered country. Hamlet concludes that it is only this dread of something after death that makes man bear the whips and scorns of time (III.i.70) ? if deaths country was charted territory, everyone would commit suicide. This theory is key when considering Romeo and Juliets suicides: they do not fear unsubstantial death (V.iii.103) but rather welcome it as a certainty after the uncertainty of life . There is a mixture of Christian and pagan imagery, for while there is an emphasis on earthly physical pleasures that will be given up in death, there is also a strong sense of a belief in some sort of timeless state after death in phrases such as everlasting rest, dateless bargain and Juliets timeless end. Above all Romeo and Juliets double suicide is a defiant denial of predestined fate and their status as star crossd ? instead they show that it is always possible to take control and shake the yoke of inauspicious stars (V.iii.111). That such a pure incarnation of love was not allowed to exist and they must kill themselves to take control is a damning indictment of their society.Romeo and Juliets transcendent love is both their blessing and their curse: it is the quality which makes the audience like them and that which sets them apart from ordinary people; but it is simultaneously the very thing which leads to their downfall and deaths, precisely because of its transcendent nature ? if their love had not been so intense or so beautiful, they would not have died to save it. This duality of innocence is a common feature in many of the tragedies ? often the tragic heros fault is linked to, or actually is, that trait which makes us like them in the first place. In this way, innocence can often achieve evil. David Daiches compares it to Eves temptation in Miltons Paradise Lost:If Satan, in the form of the serpent, had been telling the truth, then Eve would have done right to believe him and eat of the fatal fruit. Eves real fault was lack of sophistication; she was unsuspicious of what the serpent told her; she was, to use an American slang term, a sucker and swallowed his story. But is it morally wrong to be a sucker ? as Eve was with respect to the serpent, as Othello was with respect to Iago, as Brutus was with respect to such sophisticates as Antony, as Hamlet was, we might almost say, with respect to life? Shakespeare does not give an answer to this problem of the morality of innocence, though he examines it in many of the tragedies. We can conclude, however, that th e practical man is far from the peak of human success in Shakespeares eyes. Figures such as Benvolio in Romeo and Juliet, Octavius Caesar in Antony and Cleaopatra and Malcolm in Macbeth are portrayed as cold and uninteresting, being unmoved by the great passions which bring the rise and fall of the tragic heroes. They put me in mind of Tennysons phrase Tis better to have loved and lost / Than never to have loved at all. Truly these practical men have never loved, and thus are monochrome sketches in comparison to the glorious Technicolor of the heroes ? brilliant and flawed is superior to ordinary and consistent.Inevitability is important in Shakespeares tragedies, both as a dramatic device and as a tool in conveying the plays message. A feeling of inevitability keeps the audience enthralled as it watches apparently hopeful events in the knowledge that there is an inexorable downturn sometime in the near future. This leads the audience to sympathise more with the tragic hero, as one caught up in circumstances which he initiated but which have spiralled out of his control, as is the case in Macbeth, where once the hero has murdered Duncan it is inevitable that his reign of tyranny will escalate until he himself is destroyed. There is an important difference between inevitability and predictability, however: if the events are predictable, the audience will quickly become bored and the tragic effect will be lost, whereas incidents arousing pathos have a greater effect when they occur unexpectedly, but at the same time as a direct consequence of one another. An example of this is at the end of King Lear, when Lear enters carrying Cordelia dead in his arms, as the stage direction says. This event could not have been foreseen, especially as in the preceding lines there has been a sense of hope building for the first time in the play, but there is a sense of inevitability to it, and it is as a consequence of Edmunds evil. I believe that the play would be incomplete a nd far less powerful if it did not contain this final hammer blow to hope. If Cordelia were to survive, it would contradict all that the play has been saying up to this point about the injustice and the futility of life; Lears death on its own would not have been enough, because there would have been with it a sense of fulfilment and justice, as he has been reconciled with Cordelia and would thus die a happy man. The tragedy is multiplied vastly by this denial of Lears contentment, and he consequently dies confused and wondering what all the pain and destruction and loss has been for. One of the greatest tragedies in the play, and there are many, is that Lear dies without finding an answer to his question, Why should a dog, a horse, a rat, have life, / And thou no breath at all? Cordelia does not in any way deserve the fate that she receives ? she is only in England because of her selfless love for her father ? but one could argue that she precipitated the tragedy through her egoism in refusing to take part in her fathers love trial. However, her suffering is completely disproportionate to the magnitude of her crime, which accentuates the tragedy even further.The death of Cordelia, the one glimmer of hope and purity in a play full of injustice and suffering, gives a deeper meaning to Edmunds The wheel has come full circle (V.iii.174) ? it destroys any sense of progress that has been achieved through Cordelias transformation from rampant egoist to selfless altruist and thus any sense that anything has been learnt or gained from all the pain and death. If one wishes to find hope at the end of King Lear then it must lie in Edgar, for one must assume that he will take up the post of King. It could be argued that Edgar has experienced madness without being mad through adopting the role of Poor Tom, and has learnt what it is to be unaccommodated man before without having to pay the ultimate price for his discovery, and therefore can avoid making the mistakes that Le ar made. However, I would contest the notion that Edgar has learnt anything much: the stupidity he shows at the beginning by his unquestioning acceptance of Edmunds frankly not very clever trick is still present at the end. He effectively allows Cordelias death when he is again fooled by Edmund, the latter encouraging Edgar to waste time by saying This speech of yours hath moved me, / And shall perchance do good. But speak you on; / You look as you had something more to say. Edgar has four times as many lines as Edmund, and if he had not wasted so much time then perhaps there would have been time to save Cordelia. If we put these events down to Edgars innocence rather than downright stupidity they are perhaps more tragic, being akin to Iagos deception of Othello, but nevertheless the fact remains that Edgar has not learnt from his original mistake. If he is so easily deceived, whether through innocence or stupidity, he will not make a very good ruler and the consequences of his bein g deceived will be far more serious when he is in power than when only affects himself. Furthermore, Edgars treatment of his father, in keeping him alive and prolonging his misery anonymously when all he need do to halt the old mans suffering is to reveal his identity. The sole aim of this seems to be to punish Gloucester for his sins and make him repentant, which is gratuitous when Gloucester has already endured the pain of having his eyes plucked out and believing he has lost his son, not to mention that he has already admitted his mistakes, saying I stumbled when I saw. This, combined with Edgars highly disturbing speech to the fallen Edmund in which he asserts, The gods are just, and of our pleasant vices / Make instruments to plague us: / The dark and vicious place where he [Gloucester] thee got / Cost him his eyes suggests a disturbingly vigilante Puritanism which is in conflict with the enlightened Lears speech in IV.vi where he asks why humans should be punished for adultery since The wren goes to t, and the small gilded fly / Does lecher in my sight. (IV.vi.111-112) I would therefore assert that far from being a promising candidate for King, he has a dangerous combination of naÃ ¯Ã ¶Ã ¥tÃ ©Ã Ã ¡nd disgust at the human condition, which suggests that the events of the play could well repeat themselves. As Macbeth says, better be with the dead (III.ii.19).This cyclical nature is another common feature of the tragedies: too often nobody has learnt anything from the events of the play and thus there is no reason why they should not repeat themselves. Any hope, as with Edgar in King Lear, must reside in the characters left alive at the end of the play, and specifically in the character left in charge. In Othello, we have already seen Cassios weakness when, despite knowing well that he [has] very poor and unhappy brains for drinking, he nevertheless allows Iago to get him drunk. In Hamlet, the future success of the nation depends upon Fortinbras, who has been absent from the proceedings and so has not been able to learn from the mistakes that have been made, and in Romeo and Juliet I dont believe that the newfound reconciliation of the two families will last long, given the centuries of feuding beforehand, and so everything will return to how it was at the beginning of the play ? the social and religious practices that made it necessary for Romeo and Juliet to kill themselves to preserve their love have not been changed so nothing has been achieved. Thus the fundamental theme that is presented in tragedy is one of waste, both the waste of life and of potential. Cordelia, Desdemona and Ophelia are virtuous, pure and largely innocent casualties of the tragic machinations (Cordelia is more culpable than the other two, but is redeemed by sacrificing herself for the good of her father), while the tragic heroes themselves are a great waste because relatively minor character flaws negate their huge potential for good. The most devastat ing revelation, however, is that this waste is a consequence of human nature, and not only are the incidences recurring; they are inevitable.Bibliography1. Shakespeares Tragedies, ed. Laurence Lerner, Penguin Books, 19632. Shakespeares Tragic Practice, Bertrand Evans, Oxford University Press, 1979
Sunday, May 17, 2020
Question 1 Prior to the arrival of Europeans, the Iroquois developed a confederation to: control violence that may have occurred over territory conflicts. Question 2 The religious dissatisfaction, that ultimately played a factor in the colonization of the New World by Separatists, began in 1517 when which of the following men publically protested the Catholic Church? Martin Luther Question 3 Refer to the map entitled Indian Groups in the Areas of First Contact (Map 1.4) in your textbook. Which of the following groups was not considered a group of the Southwest? Natchez Question 4 Which is NOT viewed as a result of the fur trade? Answer An increase in the number of African slavesÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Answer Roanoke Island Question 14 Prior to European colonization, warfare was common amongst farming communities as a method to gain additional __________. land Question 15 __________ was the French explorer whose voyages served to claim Canada for France. Jacques Cartier Question 16 The Spanish, French, and English all explored America and left a lasting mark on the New WorldÃ¢â¬â¢s development. Compare and contrast the colonization methods used by each. Be sure to discuss the goals, characteristics, and lasting effects of each powerÃ¢â¬â¢s methods. According to the text, in the sixteenth century the Spanish invaded the CaribbeanÃ¢â¬â¢s in order to conquer North and South America. The French and English invaded the Atlantic coast in the seventeenth century (Faragher, Buhle, Czitrom, Armitage, 2009, p. 32). The goals of the Spanish were to over throw the Aztec empire and Indian people. Due to disease, which was known as their secret weapon, explained their success in conquest. Their characteristics were violent and the cruelties caused the death of millions of Indians. The lasting effects of the Spanish are that they were able to build a rich and powerful empire and most law and policy came from them as well. In regards to the French, their goal was to create settlements along the coast of Brazil and Florida. In addition to establishing a religious refuge in the New World for Huguenots. Some lasting effects that theShow MoreRelatedEssay Interpretations of American History600 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesInterpretations of American History The world is full of rich culture, diversity and experiences unique to each individual. When determining the validity of historic accounts we must factor in that particular historianÃ¢â¬â¢s point of view, which should be characterized by ethnicity, idealogy, theoretical or methodological preference. With these factors views of the past often vary from person to person. In this essay I will be discussing the four different stages that shaped the writing of American history over theRead MoreA Study Of Latin American History1308 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIV. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020
The Red Badge of Courage is a fictional story of a young soldier named Henry Fleming, who finds himself by overcoming his inner fears in a series of events during the Civil War. Henry is an average farm boy from New York, who dreams of being a true war hero. He has enlisted in the 304th New York regiment, which fights for the Unionist forces. The rising action for this novel is of Henry trying to overcome his struggle with courage. This changes when a dear friend, Jim, dies right before his eyes. He obtains a Ã¢â¬Å"red badge of courageÃ¢â¬ by accident when another soldier strikes him in the head with his rifle. Henry gains the confidence to return to his regiment and redeem himself. He develops a close relationship with the loud soldier, Wilson,Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦it was the religion of peace.Ã¢â¬ This is an example of imagery as Crane describes the area around the battlefield. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬Å"There was a silence safe for the chanting chorus of the trees.Ã¢â¬ T his is another example of imagery. Crane describes the atmosphere between shots on the battlefield. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The color red symbolized blood, danger, and things that may seem to be scary. Ã¢â¬Å"They were going to look at war, the red animal Ã¢â¬âwar, the blood-swollen god and Ã¢â¬Å"He wished that he, too, had a wound, a red badge of courage are some examples of this. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The title Ã¢â¬Å"Red Badge of CourageÃ¢â¬ symbolizes a wound that is received in fighting for oneÃ¢â¬â¢s country. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Writing Style: CraneÃ¢â¬â¢s style was short and simple. His sentences were not very long or difficult to comprehend. He doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t use as much figurative language as does some other authors. His style is unique and shows his individuality. For example, he is grammatically incorrect several times throughout the novel on purpose. Doubts and he were struggling is one example of this. He also overblew his descriptions. When he said Ã¢â¬Å"angry shot,Ã¢â¬ it makes you wonder if someone can calmly fight for their lives when they shoot. He also said, Ã¢â¬Å"suddenly lurched forwardÃ¢â¬ but is there another way to lurch other than suddenly? Another thing he said was Ã¢â¬Å"persistant woodsÃ¢â¬ but are there even such thing as those? CraneÃ¢â¬â¢s tones in the novel are violent, realistic, war-like, and emotional. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Conflicts (i.e.: man vs.Show MoreRelatedEssay about Stephen Crane and The Civil War895 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesStephen Crane and The Civil War One year after the publication of The Red Badge of Courage Crane released a continuation to the narrative in the form of a short story.Ã Ã¢â¬Å"The VeteranÃ¢â¬ characterizes an elderly Henry Fleming who recalls his first exposure to the experience of war.Ã Of the battle he remembers, Ã¢â¬Å"That was at ChancellorsvilleÃ¢â¬ (Crane 529-531).Ã While Crane never explicitly states the name of the battle in The Red Badge, the incidents mentioned in Ã¢â¬Å"The VeteranÃ¢â¬ indicate that the protagonistRead MoreEssay on A Brief Biography on Stephen Crane1345 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageswhat a realistic writer he was to become later (Ã¢â¬Å"Stephen CraneÃ¢â¬ ). He wrote his most famous work The Red Badge of Courage, in 1895, at the age of twenty-four. Much of his work was not recognized as acclaimed writing until The Red Badge of Courage. This novel won him international fame. Because of the realistic and vivid writing, he became well known for his emotional writing about fear, courage, and pride. Although he did not use firsthand experiences as he did in his first novel, he used descriptiveRead MoreThe Naturalist Movement: The Monster, and The Red Badge of Courage by Stephen Crane3096 Words Ã |Ã 13 Pagesfrom the Civil War put from the crowded cities and slums where the poor suffered and remained poor. Humans cannot, in the eyes of a Naturalist, make effective change to their standing in life. The Naturalistic influence in The Monster and The Red Badge of Courage created common philosophies in the novels. The Monster is believed to be based off several events that occurred during CraneÃ¢â¬â¢s life (Nagel). Stephen got the idea of a man without a face from Levi Hume. Levi suffered from cancer which ateRead MoreAnalysis Of The Red Badge Of Courage4842 Words Ã |Ã 20 PagesThe critics agreed there was something different going on here. Many books about war, some quite realistic, had already been written. Describe what was fresh in Crane s approach to writing about war. Stephen Crane wanted to change peoples mind about the reality of war when he was writing The Red Badge of Courage. His novel shows the differences between the reality of the situations Harry is in and the glorious way other books would portray it. Harry thinks he will receive a sendoff from the townRead MoreAnalysis Of Marcys Life Experience990 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesstated Ã¢â¬Å"My mother was very instrumental in getting me started.Ã¢â¬ Her mother would often read her the Dick and Jane books, which were very memorable for Marcy. A lot of MarcyÃ¢â¬â¢s early childhood was spent with her mother. Marcy recalled how her Ã¢â¬Å"mother had a big influence because she was a stay at home mother, so she had the time. Ã¢â¬Å"[Ã¢â¬ ¦]She read me Alice in Wonderland twice, and read me a book of fairytales.Ã¢â¬ MarcyÃ¢â¬â¢s motherly influence made her realize how much she loved literature. However, it would beRead MoreThe Changes That Came About The Psychiatric Health Systems1536 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesaspects that would face a nurse and her patients, especially in the mental health areas. With all the changes the reforms were bringing, besides each institutions, of mostly outdated policies and procedure, the nurse at that time was armed only with courage and compassion and a thin manual less than 20 pages, of Legal and Ethical Issues in Nursing. I do not recall if it was just Kansas or just the mental health reform, but what other Nurses forgot in practice, I called my Ã¢â¬Å"bible. Ã¢â¬Å" Being as such, IRead MoreThe Things They Carried And The Red Badge Of Courage2095 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesCarter Period 4 January 19th, 2016 Finding the Way The struggle between the standards of society and the desires of the individual are as old as the institution itself. The three main characters in the books The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, The Things They Carried, and The Red Badge of Courage are all put into situations that are separate from normal, everyday life. This gives them a much needed outside perspective and reveals a lot about their own personal struggles with society. Their pathsRead MoreBeowulf: The Canonization of Anglo-Saxon Literature into Modern Popular Culture769 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages1975 comic book Beowulf: Dragon Slayer features a red-haired, horn-helmeted Beowulf swinging a large broadsword at a purple-caped villain also bearing two razor-sharp swords. As Beowulf rears up on his steed, a bikini clad woman, cloth slightly aside to reveal the shadow of a buttock is drawn falling, face filled with terror. In the background, a rising full moon and silhouetted gothic castle keenly set an atmosphere of dread and foreboding. Above the emboldened title of the comic book reads inRead MoreErich Remarque s The Red Badge Of Courage Essay1873 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesdistributed I m Western Nights Neuse, converted into English a year later as All Quiet on the Western Front, a novel about the encounters of conventional German fighters amid the war. In spite of the fact that different books, most strikingly Stephen Crane s The Red Badge of Courage (1895), had investigated the viciousness and severity of war in a sensible light, the abstract convention of war stories still tended overwhelmingly toward romanticized beliefs of eminence, enterprise, and respect. InRead MoreTda 2.2: Safeguarding the Welfare of Children and Young People2348 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pagesitchy red spots with white in centre. Ã¯â § Tonsillitis Ã¢â¬â very sore throat, fever and enlarged tonsils covered in white spots Ã¯â § Conjunctivitis Ã¢â¬â Red, sore eyes that itch and may be sticky. Ã¯â § Diarrhoea/vomiting Ã¢â¬â Diarrhoea- stomach pains/ Vomiting Ã¢â¬â dehydration. Ã¯â § Ringworm Ã¢â¬â ring like red rash Ã¯â § Measles Ã¢â¬â slight fever and red rash starting behind the ears. Ã¯â § Meningitis Ã¢â¬â meningitis can be difficult to stop early on but can be life threatening. Symptoms are: fever, headache, a rash (dark red spots
In this paper, I will apply WatsonÃ¢â¬â¢s theory to one specific nurse-patient interaction, which I encountered during my experience as a nurse. I will also describe how WatsonÃ¢â¬â¢s carative factors were utilized in the transpersonal relationship. I will also give a personal reflection on my professional experience that is basis of this paper. The term theory has many definitions, but generally it refers to a group of related concepts, definitions, and statements that propose a view of nursing phenomena from which to describe, explain, or predict outcomes (Chitty, 2005). Theories are important because it help guide nurses in the direction to provide the best care to patientsÃ¢â¬â¢. A benefit of having a defined body of theory in nursing allow the nurse to provide efficient patient care, promote nursing status as a professional, improved communication amongst caregivers and patients, and guidance for nurses to engage in research to further their education . Dr. Jean Watson is an American nursing scholar born in West Virginia. Dr. Watson attended the University of Colorado where she earned her BachelorÃ¢â¬â¢s of Science degree in nursing and psychology. Watson later earned her masterÃ¢â¬â¢s degree in psychiatric-mental health nursing and continued to earn her Ph. D in education psychology and counseling (Chantal, 2003). In 1979, Dr. WatsonÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of science of caring was first published in Nursing: The Philosophy and Science of Caring. In the publication, she issued a call for a return to the earlier values of nursing and emphasized the caring aspects nursing. WatsonÃ¢â¬â¢s work addresses the philosophical question of the nature of nursing when viewed as a human-human relationship (Chitty, 2005). There are three major concept of WatsonÃ¢â¬â¢s theory: a) the carative factors, b) the transpersonal caring relationship, and c) the caring occasion/caring moment. The carative factors provide a focus for nursing phenomena. Carative factors specify the meaning of the relationship of the nurse and patient as human beings. Transpersonal caring relationships describe how the nurse goes beyond an objective assessment, showing concerns towards the personÃ¢â¬â¢s subjective and meaning regarding their health care situation. The goal of transpersonal caring relationship is to protect, enhance, and preserve the personÃ¢â¬â¢s dignity, humanity, wholeness, and inner harmony(Cara, 2003). Caring occasion/caring moment occurs whenever the nurse and another come together in a given moment for human-to-human interaction. Watson believes that both nurse and patient can be influenced by caring moments depending on their action and choice within the relationship. Dr. WatsonÃ¢â¬â¢s carative factors consist of 10 elements: 1. The formation of a humanistic-altruistic system of values. 2. Instillation of faith-hope. . The development of a helping-trusting, human care relationship. 4. The cultivation of sensitivity to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s self and to otherÃ¢â¬â¢s 5. The promotion and acceptance of the expression of positive and negative feelings 6. Creative problem solving caring process 7. The promotion of transpersonal teaching and learning 8. The provision for a supportive, protective and/or corrective mental, physical , socio-cultural and spiritual environment. 9. Assistance with the gratification of human needs 10. The allowance for existential-phenomenological forces. (Cara, 2003, p. 52). As Watson continued to develop her theory, she developed clinical caritas processes, which replaced the carative factors. Clinical caritas processes were: 1. Practice of loving kindness within context of caring consciousness. 2. Being authentically present, and enabling and sustaining the deep belief system and subjective life world of self and one-being-cared for. 3. Cultivation of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own spiritual practices and transpersonal self, going beyond ego self, opening to others with sensitivity and compassion. 4. Developing and sustaining a helping-trusting caring relationship. . Being supportive of, the expression of positive and negative feelings to connect with a deeper spirit of one self. 6. Creative use of self and all ways of knowing as part of the caring process; to engage in artistry of caring-healing practices 7. Participate in genuine teaching-learning experience that promote unity of being and meaning, attempting to stay within others; frames of reference. 8. Creating an environment that is conductive to healing at every level, subtle environment, which potentiates the ability to sustain or develop dignity, comfort, and peace. . Ensuring basic needs are met, with a caring conscious, providing Ã¢â¬Å"human care essentialsÃ¢â¬ , which tends to the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s mindbodyspirit. 10. Allowing the expression oneÃ¢â¬â¢s spirituality and attending to spiritual needs as it relates to ( Cara, 2003). According to Suliman, Welmann, Omer, and Thomas (2009), transpersonal relationship depends on the nurse moral commitment in protecting and enhancing human dignity. It also depends on the nursesÃ¢â¬â¢ caring conscious communicated to preserve and honor the embodied spirit. The nurse caring conscious and human-to-human relationship potentiates a healing process that is based on the nursesÃ¢â¬â¢ intentional connection, perception, and experience. Dr. WatsonÃ¢â¬â¢s carative factors can be utilized in the transpersonal relationship in the clinical setting in many ways. When developing a nurse-patient relationship, it is very import to establish a helping-trusting, human care relationship with the patient. Establishing a relationship that is genuine in nature, which goes beyond working nurse-patient relationship is necessary to build a transpersonal relationship. Transpersonal relationship can develop from the nurse-patient incorporating spiritual matters in the healing process. The nurse ability to instill hope and faith to patients who are in distress, exhibit a sense of the nurse caring conscious. Promoting hope when modern medicine have nothing else to offer, the nurse can continue to give faith-hope to provide a sense of well-being through beliefÃ¢â¬â¢s which are meaningful to the individual (Holland Wade, amp; Kasper, (2006). Assisting with the gratification of human needs could also be utilized in the transpersonal relationship. When developing a transpersonal relationship one must remember to protect the dignity of the patient at all times. Assisting the patient with basic needs with intentional caring consciousness, while administering Ã¢â¬Å" human care essentials,Ã¢â¬ which potentiate alignment of mindbodyspirit and unity of being in all aspect of care (Cara, 2003). The promotion of transpersonal teaching and learning is also useful in the development of transpersonal relationships. Engaging in meaningful and intentional caring process allows the nurse to establish transpersonal relationship with the patient. This encounter also allows the nurse and patient to communicate in a way where each oneÃ¢â¬â¢s perspectives are evaluated for understanding. Understanding the personÃ¢â¬â¢s perception of the situation can assist the nurse to prepare a cognitive plan. This interaction promotes mutuality between both nurse and patient, which is essential in developing a meaningful relationship. Dr. Watson define the person as a being-in-the-world who holds three spheres of being-mind, body, and spirit that are influenced by the concept of self and who is unique and free to make choices (Cara, 2003). Dr. WatsonÃ¢â¬â¢s assumption of caring as it relate to the person states Ã¢â¬Å" Ã¢â¬ ¦a caring person is that the person is somehow responsive to another person as a unique individual, perceives the otherÃ¢â¬â¢s feelings, and sets one person apart from otherÃ¢â¬ . Dr. WatsonÃ¢â¬â¢s believes that a personÃ¢â¬â¢s health is subjective. Health corresponds to the personÃ¢â¬â¢s harmony, or balance, within the mind, body, and spirit. Dr. WatsonÃ¢â¬â¢s assumption of health states that caring promotes health more than curing and effective caring promotes health to an individual as well as family growth (Cara, 2003). According to Dr. Watson nursing is defined as a Ã¢â¬Å"human science of persons and human health-illness experiences that are mediated by professional, personal, scientific, aesthetic, and ethical human care transactionsÃ¢â¬ (2008a, p. 54). Dr. WatsonÃ¢â¬â¢s assumption as it pertains to nursing states that human caring in nursing is not just an emotion, concern, attitude, or benevolent desire, but rather a personal response (Cara, 2003). Dr. Watson believe the personÃ¢â¬â¢s environment could expand awareness and consciousness, while promoting the healing of the, mind, body, and spirit. Dr. WatsonÃ¢â¬â¢s assumption of caring as it relates to the environment states that Ã¢â¬Å"a caring environment offers the development of potential while allowing the person to choose the best action for the self at a given point in timeÃ¢â¬ (Alligood, 2010, p. 109). To better understand Dr. WatsonÃ¢â¬â¢s theory, I will apply her theory to a specific nurse-patient encounter. When using clinical caritas process (CCP), I will also attach the corresponding numbers to denote its use within my clinical story. While working in Post Anesthesia Care Unit (PACU), I was assigned a patient by the name of Ms. Anderson. Ms. Anderson was 1 day post-op of having a vaginal hysterectomy. Upon getting report regarding Ms. AndersonÃ¢â¬â¢s condition, I was informed that the patient was Ã¢â¬Å"very needyÃ¢â¬ and didnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to go homeÃ¢â¬ . When I went into Ms. AndersonÃ¢â¬â¢s room, I introduced myself and told her that I will be her nurse for the day. I proceeded to ask Ms. Anderson if there is anything I could do for her at that time. She told me that see just want the lights off and the curtains closed. After an hour I went back into Ms. AndersonÃ¢â¬â¢s room informing her that she will be discharged that day. She appeared very anxious and apprehensive. I held her hand as I asked Ã¢â¬Å"Ms. Anderson you seem a little upset is there a reason you do not want to go homeÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢(CCP#4). Ms. Anderson began to cry and I assured her that everything will be ok, but she had to believe that I was there to try to help her (CCP#2). Ms. Anderson proceeded to tell me that she does not live in this state and she thought that she would be hospitalized for at least three days. Ms. Anderson said she had a train ticket back to her home state of Atlanta, but the train ticket was for the following day. I acknowledged Ms. AndersonÃ¢â¬â¢s concerns and informed her that she need not to worry (CCP#5). I informed Ms. AndersonÃ¢â¬â¢s doctor and notified the hospital social worker regarding her situation (CCP#6). After collaborating with the doctor and social worker, we were able to accommodate Ms. Anderson for another night. I inform Ms. Anderson that she could stay in the unit and I will continue to assist in any way until her departure the following day (CCP#1). Allowing Ms. Anderson to stay in the hospital an additional night, eliminated her anxiety. Dr. WatsonÃ¢â¬â¢s theory has personally expanded my perception regarding how patientsÃ¢â¬â¢ should be managed as a whole. When using WatsonÃ¢â¬â¢s theory in practice, it allows me to place focus mainly on the patients needs by the use of having a caring conscious rather the use of technology or medication. In conclusion, WatsonÃ¢â¬â¢s caring theory provides a guide for nurses to practice nursing by way of having a caring conscious. Nursing theories provide a guide for nurses to administer evidence-base nursing to provide best care to patientsÃ¢â¬â¢. The major concepts of WatsonÃ¢â¬â¢s theory, which are carative factors, transpersonal relationships, and caring moment allow the nurse to provide a foundation for nurses to use within the clinical setting. Dr. WatsonÃ¢â¬â¢s theory assumptions provide a guide for nursesÃ¢â¬â¢ to establish human-to-human relationships, which could be applied during a caring moment. The nurse ability to establish a caring relationship with the patient is the focal point of WatsonÃ¢â¬â¢s theory.
Tuesday, April 14, 2020
Essay Topics About SoccerThere are few topics that are more popular than essay topics on soccer. If you are a student who wants to write about the game of soccer, there are some essay topics that you can use for maximum impact. Here are some examples of things that you can use to write about soccer.Talk about the history of the sport. Write about how soccer has evolved over the years and what influences the game's growth. You can discuss the major events in the sport's history and what they meant for the sport. For example, in the sport's history, the first ever soccer match took place in 1882. That's right; the sport is incredibly old.Talk about the stars and their careers. You can talk about the superstars of the sport, like Pele and Maradona. They were two of the best players in the history of the sport. Try to talk about how they influenced the entire game.Write about the teams. There are dozens of teams in the world of soccer. So, how do you create essay topics about them? In or der to make this work, you have to look at the history of the sport and who is involved in it.One of the most important factors is whether or not the team is made up of African-Americans. You may have heard that the first African-American team in the history of the sport was created in the 1980s. That's right.You can talk about some of the most famous games in the history of the sport, including the World Cup Final of 1994 and the Soccer Bowl. These are two of the most famous games in the history of the sport.Write about the stadiums. There are thousands of stadiums in the world of soccer. So, how do you create essay topics that talk about those stadiums?An important factor is the stadium in which the team plays. Try to find the most famous stadium in the world of soccer. This is important because if the stadium is not famous, it may be difficult to write about the game in general. You can't discuss the history of the sport without discussing the stadium.
Monday, April 6, 2020
New Questions About Samples of Research Essay Proposals Answered and Why You Must Read Every Word of This Report
New Questions About Samples of Research Essay Proposals Answered and Why You Must Read Every Word of This Report The Basics of Samples of Research Essay Proposals Rather than facing this uphill task alone, you can purchase an impressive research proposal from our site. You aren't going to do everything that you would like to do without support, and that means you must gather the support which you need. When you want to start up some type of research, you have to know you will have support behind you when you attempt all that you're going to attempt. The majority of the students struggle to find information about how to compose a research proposal and spend tons of money when hiring other people to finish the job. Proposals aim to get accepted by the people involved. They are written for different reasons and they can follow a variety of formats. Creating proposals needs a great deal of thinking. Proposals of this kind normally have deadlines. The Hidden Truth About Sampl es of Research Essay Proposals Often you need to summarize a whole lot of research into an extremely brief paragraph. A research proposal stipulates a brief (two fifty to three hundred words) overview of your research paper which provides the reader sufficient information regarding the research work you will do, the whole work program and the value and range of your research work. You might have to include de details of research limitations before you finish the document. The aim of literature review is to allow the readers know that you've got sufficient understanding of the topic. If you're writing a proposal essay paper, you should work as a salesman. A proposal essay is extremely easy to comprehend. If you've got few proposal essay tips for your academic assignment, make sure you have ironed out all of the unnecessary elements and only the effective ones. Apart from samples, there are lots of tools that may support you on writing your proposal essay. An individual must observe that such strategy isn't quite accurate. Sampling Method The research sampling method which will be utilised inside this study is random sampling to acquire a more scientific result that could be employed to symbolize the entirety of the populace. You will need to explain the advantages of your methods and research, together with potential limitations. If you'll be conducting your own research, like through a survey or a scientific experiment, you have to outline the precise process that you intend to use. Probably less than you would love! Actually all absolutely free research proposals available on the internet are 100% plagiarized! When you make the most of all that is supplied in Research Proposal Samples, then you're able to complete the information which is related to what it is you are asking for and you are able to secure the help that's pertinent to you. What to Expect From Samples of Research Essay Proposals? Moreover, all ideas borrowed from any sort of p ublication has to be cited properly. If you're searching where to purchase research paper proposals online, you are likely to locate our site. Make certain you're familiar enough with your poster that it is possible to chat about it without looking at it. Figure out how to compose the very best paper on 10 pages. The Pain of Samples of Research Essay Proposals A superb Research Proposal ought to be concise. You have to acquire support for your research undertaking, and you may do that through the help which you will see in Research Proposal Samples. Fourth, you must demonstrate the way your research will fit into the full subject. You may have a look or download any sample abstract for a research proposal that fits with your subject of research. When you own a research proposal it means you perform a superior research and you've got the competence and knowledge to do it. Rather, it should explain the worth of your research undertaking. 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There are many things which you must include in a research proposal in order to provide your supervisor a great comprehension of the approach that you wish to take in your research. A business proposal is an official document written for a client to be able to find a particular job. The Pain of Samples of Research Essay Proposals Frequently, a distinction between both research types is framed when it comes to using close-end questions as opposed to the open-ended ones or using words rather than numbers. Researches can arrive in the shape of quantitative or qualitative. The Key to Successful Samples of Research Essay Proposals A proposal sample can be very beneficial for students who aren't aware of the tenets of a research paper. Being a real student, you should understand that understanding an essay proposal is essential. 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Thursday, March 12, 2020
Unusual Article Uncovers the Deceptive Practices of Common App Essay 3 Samples Details of Common App Essay 3 Samples Hobbies which are really wonderful but not too intriguing. This topic is full of possibilities. That, and stick to this guide! Heady undertaking, naturally, but we're here to assist. The procedure for your experience is extremely important. Don't neglect to reflect on your choice. Begin right in the center of things, wherever your action or conflict starts. Read your narrative aloud and imagine your audience is right before you. Keep in mind the scale isn't a factor, it is very important to concentrate on why it's significant to you. It may be an intellectual challenge, a research query, an ethical dilemma anything that's of personal significance, whatever the scale. It may be an intellectual challenge, a research query, an ethical dilemma--anything that's of personal significance, regardless of the scale. Top Common App Essay 3 Samples Choices In truth, it might be just the opposite. No matter the circumstance, create a crystal clear picture of its private importance and that which you did, or would do, to fix the issue. Don't neglect to explain why the dilemma is significant to you! Clearly articulate the issue. Try to remember that the Common App offers you creative license. This is a more open-ended variant of the prior prompt. Visit my site for more info. It's very useful to take writing apart to be able to see just th e way that it accomplishes its objectives. This will steer you toward your strengths. Thus, they're not meant to elicit certain responses, but instead an extensive variety of creative pieces. Note you do not need to have solved the issue, and a few of the greatest essays will explore problems which ought to be solved later on. These perspectives are able to help you discover the suggestions and concepts which are behind what you do daily. What you share can be meaningful in a variety of ways. Obviously, some suggestions and beliefs will cause better essays than others. On the other hand, the initial six topics are very broad with lots of flexibility, so make certain your topic really can't be identified with one of them. Common App Essay 3 Samples - Dead or Alive? If it comes to college admissions, you would like to win big. You're writing a college application essay, and you have to know about your audience. To get admitted into college, you've got to be real. Please be aware that a few of these college essay examples might be responding to prompts that are no longer being used. At the exact same time, you will impress the college admissions folks greatly if you may present your capacity to learn from your failures and mistakes. Someone who'd be an excellent add-on to any college campus. You're attempting to show colleges your very best self, therefore it might appear counterintuitive to willingly acknowledge a time you struggled. Read it through a time or two, and after that get to thinking about the way you can write something which gets you into five colleges simultaneously! They should simply exist. We want to get to understand this Shmooper. Do whatever is required to say what you have to say. That wasn't my quinceanera. Using Common App Essay 3 Samples It's really quite easy, actually. Think about what's important to you and why. They do not have to sound smart. See how they got in, and the way you can too! Common App Essay 3 Samples - the Conspiracy The key thing is to receive something down! If this is the case, you've come to the corre ct location. The coat hanger comes out of a dumpster. You also need to connect it to who you are as a man and the way this experience has shaped you in some manner. Allow it to sit for a couple days untouched. I used ton't notice at the moment. For inspiration, have a look at your schedule, activities and the way you spend the majority of your time both inside and away from the classroom. The Key to Successful Common App Essay 3 Samples The term limit on the essay will stay at 650. In general, there's no single correct topic. If you wish to see her essay in context, have a look at this hyperlink. Bridget's essay is extremely strong, but there continue to be a couple little things that could be made better.